Database: Query Builder

Introduction

Framy's database query builder provides a convenient, fluent interface to creating and running database queries. It can be used to perform most database operations in your application and works on all supported database systems.

The query builder uses PDO parameter binding to protect your application against SQL injection attacks. There is no need to clean strings being passed as bindings.

Retrieving Results

Retrieving All Rows From A Table

You may use the table method on the DB class to begin a query. The table method returns a query builder instance for the given table, allowing you to chain more constraints onto the query and then finally get the results using the get method:

$users = DB::table('users')->get();

The get() method returns a array containing the results where each result is an instance of Model class. You may access each column's value by accessing the column as a property of the object:

foreach ($users as $user) {
    echo $user->name;
}

Retrieving A Single Row / Column From A Table

If you just need to retrieve a single row from the database table, you may use the first method. This method will return a single Model object:

$user = DB::table('users')->where('name', 'John')->first();

If you don't even need an entire row, you may extract a single value from a record using the value method. This method will return the value of the column directly:

$user = DB::table('users')->where('name', 'John')->value("name");

Aggregates

The query builder also provides a variety of aggregate methods such as count, max, min, avg, and sum. You may call any of these methods after constructing your query:

$users = DB::table('users')->count();

$price = DB::table('orders')->max('price');

Determining If Records Exist

Instead of using the count method to determine if any records exist that match your query's constraints, you may use the exists and doesntExist methods:

return DB::table('orders')->where('finalized', 1)->exists();

return DB::table('orders')->where('finalized', 1)->doesntExist();

Where Clauses

Simple Where Clauses

You may use the where() method on a query builder instance to add where clauses to the query. The most basic call to where() requires three arguments. The first argument is the name of the column. The second argument is an operator, which can be any of the database's supported operators. Finally, the third argument is the value to evaluate against the column.

For example, here is a query that verifies the value of the "votes" column is equal to 100:

$users = DB::table('users')->where('votes', '=', 100)->get();

You may use a variety of other operators when writing a where clause:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->where('votes', '>=', 100)
    ->get();

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->where('votes', '<>', 100)
    ->get();

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->where('name', 'like', 'T%')
    ->get();

You may also pass an array of conditions to the where function:

$users = DB::table('users')->where([
    ['status', '=', '1'],
    ['subscribed', '<>', '1'],
])->get();

Or Statements

You may chain where constraints together as well as add or clauses to the query. The orWhere method accepts the same arguments as the where method:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->where('votes', '>', 100)
    ->orWhere('name', 'John')
    ->get();

Additional Where Clauses

whereBetween / orWhereBetween

The whereBetween method verifies that a column's value is between two values:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereBetween('votes', [1, 100])->get();

whereNotBetween / orWhereNotBetween

The whereNotBetween method verifies that a column's value lies outside of two values:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereNotBetween('votes', [1, 100])->get();

whereIn / whereNotIn / orWhereIn / orWhereNotIn

The whereIn method verifies that a given column's value is contained within the given array:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereIn('votes', [1, 100])->get();

The whereNotIn method verifies that the given column's value is not contained in the given array:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereNotIn('votes', [1, 100])->get();

whereNull / whereNotNull / orWhereNull / orWhereNotNull

The whereNull method verifies that the value of the given column is NULL:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereNull('updated_at')->get();

The whereNotNull method verifies that the column's value is not NULL:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->whereNotNull('updated_at')->get();

whereDate / whereMonth / whereDay / whereYear / whereTime

The whereDate method may be used to compare a column's value against a date:

$users = DB::table("users")
    ->whereDate("created_at", "=", "2019-04-06")->get();

The whereMonth method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific month of a year:

$users = DB::table("users")
    ->whereMonth("created_at", "=", 4)->get();

The whereDay method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific day of a month:

$users = DB::table("users")
    ->whereDay("created_at", "=", 6)->get();

The whereYear method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific year:

$users = DB::table("users")
    ->whereYear("created_at", "=", 2019)->get();

Ordering, Grouping, Limit, & Offset

orderBy

The orderBy method allows you to sort the result of the query by a given column. The first argument to the orderBy method should be the column you wish to sort by, while the second argument controls the direction of the sort and may be either asc or desc:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->orderBy('name', 'desc')
    ->get();

latest / oldest

The latest and oldest methods allow you to easily order results by date. By default, result will be ordered by the created_at column. Or, you may pass the column name that you wish to sort by:

$user = DB::table('users')
    ->latest()
    ->first();

inRandomOrder

The inRandomOrder method may be used to sort the query results randomly. For example, you may use this method to fetch a random user:

$randomUser = DB::table('users')
    ->inRandomOrder()
    ->first();

skip / take

To limit the number of results returned from the query, or to skip a given number of results in the query, you may use the skip and take methods:

users = DB::table('users')->skip(10)->take(5)->get();

Alternatively, you may use the limit and offset methods:

$users = DB::table('users')
    ->offset(10)
    ->limit(5)
    ->get();

Inserts

The query builder also provides an insert method for inserting records into the database table. The insert method accepts an array of column names and values:

DB::table('users')->insert(
    ['email' => 'john@example.com', 'votes' => 0]
);

You may even insert several records into the table with a single call to insert by passing an array of arrays. Each array represents a row to be inserted into the table:

DB::table('users')->insert([
    ['email' => 'taylor@example.com', 'votes' => 0],
    ['email' => 'dayle@example.com', 'votes' => 0]
]);

Updates

In addition to inserting records into the database, the query builder can also update existing records using the update method. The update method, like the insert method, accepts an array of column and value pairs containing the columns to be updated. You may constrain the update query using where clauses:

DB::table('users')
    ->where('id', '=', 1)
    ->update(['votes' => 1]);

Increment & Decrement

The query builder also provides convenient methods for incrementing or decrementing the value of a given column. This is a shortcut, providing a more expressive and terse interface compared to manually writing the update statement.

Both of these methods accept at least one argument: the column to modify. A second argument may optionally be passed to control the amount by which the column should be incremented or decremented:

DB::table('users')->increment('votes');

DB::table('users')->increment('votes', 5);

DB::table('users')->decrement('votes');

DB::table('users')->decrement('votes', 5);

Deletes

The query builder may also be used to delete records from the table via the delete method. You may constrain delete statements by adding where clauses before calling the delete method:

DB::table('users')->delete();

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '>', 100)->delete();

If you wish to truncate the entire table, which will remove all rows and reset the auto-incrementing ID to zero, you may use the truncate method:

DB::table('users')->truncate();